Map of early human migrations according to mitochondrial population genetics

The letters on the map refer to haplogroup. A human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup is a haplogroup defined by differences in Human Mitochondrial DNA. Haplogroups are used to represent the major branch points on the mitochondrial phylogenetic tree. Understanding the evolutionary path of the female lineage has helped population geneticists trace the matrilineal inheritance of modern humans back to human origins in Africa and the subsequent spread across the globe. The letter names of the haplogroups run from A to Z. As haplogroups were named in the order of their discovery, they do not reflect the actual genetic relationships.

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