Daniel was the first Jewish prophet to refer to the resurrection and to everlasting life. And many of them that sleep in the dust of the earth shall awake, some to everlasting life, and some to shame and everlasting contempt (12:2). Given Daniel’s position as advisor to Darius the Great, there may well be an influence here.

At least three other sources, scholars suggest, refer to the resurrection. These are excluded in this assessment, since an alternative, more metaphysical, interpretation seems more likely, viz:

Let favour be shewed to the wicked, yet will he not learn righteousness: in the land of uprightness will he deal unjustly, and will not behold the majesty of the Lord. (Isaiah 26:10.) Here “behold the majesty of the Lord” is more likely to refer to a state of mystical awareness than it is to resurrection.

I will ransom them from the power of the grave; I will redeem them from death: O death, I will be thy plagues; O grave, I will be thy destruction: repentance shall be hid from mine eyes. (Hosea 13:14.) Again this more likely refers to the tradition of “dying before you die,” i.e. one’s lesser self has to “die” in order for our essential self to take control.

The wicked is driven away in his wickedness: but the righteous hath hope in his death. (Proverbs 14:32.) The same idea as above applies here: the late Sufi philosopher, Idries Shah, refers to the “self” which has to “die” as: “the mixture of primitive emotionality and irrelevant associations which bedevil” undeveloped man. See The Commanding Self by Idries Shah, p. 2.

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